Wett berlin

wett berlin

Informationen zum Wetter in Berlin mit aktuellen Wetterdaten und Vorhersage für die nächsten Tage. Inklusive Regenradar, Pollenflugvorhersage. Das Wetter in Berlin - Wettervorhersage für 14 Tage. Aktuelles Wetter in Berlin: Temperatur, Schnee, Regen, Wind, Luftfeuchtigkeit, Wetterwarnungen, etc. Wie wird das Wetter heute in Berlin? Temperatur-, Wind- und Regenvorhersage, sowie aktuelle Wetterwarnungen finden Sie auf dentredjevagen.nu für Berlin. Diese Neuerungen bringt der Oktober. Regional nasses Herbstwetter Sa Dazu möchten wir Ihre Daten verwenden, um zum Beispiel genau auf Sie zugeschnittene Informationen liefern zu können oder ganz casino ettlingen Features, die Ihnen die Nutzung unseres Angebots erleichtern. Jetzt die Seite neu laden. Und wenn sich das Wetter wieder einmal von seiner extremen Seite zeigt, finden Sie auf dieser Seite eine entsprechende Unwetterwarnung für Berlin.

Wett Berlin Video

Das Milliardenspiel - Sportwetten in Europa

Your misbehavior there is warmly desired! Happy to see you there! Thanks again for all who came on the 3rd tasting session. Tomorrow 14th sat will be another menu with Lebanese main and Japanes Very happy if you could join us, Please Pm us for reservation.

Wahid El or Mami Yamasaki thank you! Sections of this page. Email or Phone Password Forgot account? Wet Delights Berlin Public Group.

Join Group settings More. October 30 at 5: Cobeia Shares shared a link. Tonight, step out of the beaten track and come down to the bay!

Cobeia - Solar Sound System Mix. A Cosmic indian african oriental re-edits dub post-punk folk mix! Or something like that A few tracks stitched together on a springtime open air afternoon for the Solar Sound System in Berlin.

No monitor made it an extra fun ride! Was great to see old friends there and spend a good time with Cobeia Shares shared Aga Witkowska 's event.

Wahid El shared Daniele Zonza 's post. In May , the Soviets lifted the blockade, and West Berlin as a separate city with its own jurisdiction was maintained.

This was temporary until talks were resumed. From the legal theory followed by the Western Allies, the occupation of most of Germany ended in with the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany 23 May and of the German Democratic Republic 7 October Under Article of the Basic Law or constitution of the Federal Republic, provision was made for federal laws to be extended to Greater Berlin as West Berlin was officially known as well as Baden , Rhineland-Palatinate and Württemberg-Hohenzollern within one year of its promulgation.

Hence, the Basic Law was not fully applicable to West Berlin. On 4 August the House of Representatives the city's legislature passed a new constitution, declaring Berlin to be a state of the Federal Republic and the provisions of the Basic Law as binding law superior to Berlin state law Article 1, clauses 2 and 3.

However, this became statutory law only on 1 September and only with the inclusion of the western Allied provision [8] according to which Art. Article 87 is interpreted as meaning that during the transitional period Berlin shall possess none of the attributes of a twelfth Land.

The provision of this Article concerning the Basic Law will only apply to the extent necessary to prevent a conflict between this Law and the Berlin Constitution Thus civic liberties and personal rights except for the privacy of telecommunications guaranteed by the Basic Law were also valid in West Berlin.

In addition, West German federal statutes could only take effect in West Berlin with the approval of the city's legislature.

In their notification of permission of 12 May the three western military governors for Germany explained their proviso in No. A third reservation concerns the participation of Greater Berlin in the Federation.

We interpret the effect of Articles 23 and 2 of the Basic Law as constituting acceptance of our previous request that while Berlin may not be accorded voting membership in the Bundestag or Bundesrat nor be governed by the Federation she may, nevertheless, designate a small number of representatives to the meetings of those legislative bodies.

Consequently, West Berliners were indirectly represented in the Bundestag in Bonn by 22 non-voting delegates [12] chosen by the House of Representatives.

For example, Social Democrat Willy Brandt , who eventually became Chancellor, was elected via his party's list of candidates.

Also, male residents of West Berlin were exempt from the Federal Republic's compulsory military service; this exemption made the city a popular destination for West German young people, which resulted in a flourishing counterculture , which in turn became one of the defining features of the city.

The Western Allies remained the ultimate political authorities in West Berlin. All legislation of the House of Representatives, whether of the West Berlin legislature or adopted federal law, only applied under the proviso of confirmation by the three Western Allied commanders-in-chief.

If they approved a bill, it was enacted as part of West Berlin's statutory law. If the commanders-in-chief rejected a bill, it did not become law in West Berlin; this, for example, was the case with West German laws on military duty.

The Governing Mayor and Senators ministers had to be approved by the Western Allies and thus derived their authority from the occupying forces, not from their electoral mandate.

The Soviets unilaterally declared the occupation of East Berlin at an end along with the rest of East Germany.

This move was, however, not recognised by the Western Allies, who continued to view all of Berlin as a jointly occupied territory belonging to neither of the two countries.

This view was supported by the continued practice of patrols of all four sectors by soldiers of all four occupying powers. After the Wall was built, East Germany wanted to control Western Allied patrols upon entering or leaving East Berlin, a practice that the Western Allies regarded as unacceptable.

So, after protests to the Soviets, the patrols continued uncontrolled on both sides, with the tacit agreement that the western Allies would not use their patrolling privileges for helping Easterners to flee to the West.

In many ways, West Berlin functioned as the de facto 11th state of West Germany, and was depicted on maps published in the West as being a part of West Germany.

There was freedom of movement to the extent allowed by geography between West Berlin and West Germany. There were no separate immigration regulations for West Berlin, all immigration rules for West Germany being followed in West Berlin.

West German entry visas issued to visitors were stamped with "for the Federal Republic of Germany, including Land Berlin", in German " für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland einschl.

However, this wording remained on the visas throughout the rest of the entire period of West Berlin's existence.

The West German Federal Government, as well as the governments of most western nations, considered East Berlin to be a "separate entity" from East Germany, and while the Western Allies later opened embassies in East Berlin, they recognised the city only as the seat of government of the GDR, not as its capital.

Communist countries, however, did not recognise West Berlin as part of West Germany and usually described it as a "third" German jurisdiction, called in German selbständige politische Einheit "independent political unit".

However, West Berliners could not use their passports for crossing East German borders and were denied entrance by any country of the Eastern Bloc , since governments of these countries held the view that West Germany was not authorized to issue legal papers for West Berliners.

Since West Berlin was not a sovereign state, it did not issue passports. Instead, West Berliners were issued with "auxiliary identity cards" by the West Berlin authorities.

These differed visually from the regular West German identity cards, with green bindings instead of the grey standard, they did not show the "Federal Eagle" or coat of arms , and did not contain any indications as to the issuing State.

However, they did have a statement that the holder of the document was a German citizen. Since identity cards had no pages to stamp visas, issuers of East German visas stamped their visas onto separate leaflets which were loosely stuck into the identity cards, which, until the mids, were little booklets.

Although the West German government subsidized visa fees, they were still payable by individual travellers. However, for countries which did not require stamped visas for entry, including Switzerland, Austria, and many members of the then European Economic Community , including the United Kingdom , [25] West Berlin identity cards were also acceptable for entry.

Active immigration and asylum politics in West Berlin triggered waves of immigration in the s and s. Currently, Berlin is home to at least , Turkish and Turkish German residents, [27] making it the largest Turkish community outside of Turkey.

Most Westerners called the Western sectors "Berlin", unless further distinction was necessary. These different naming conventions for the divided parts of Berlin, when followed by individuals, governments, or media, commonly indicated their political leanings, with the centre-right Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung using "Ost-Berlin" and the centre-left Süddeutsche Zeitung using "Ostberlin".

Kennedy that the United States propose a swap of West Berlin with Thuringia and parts of Saxony and Mecklenburg ; the city's population would have been relocated to West Germany.

While the Kennedy administration seriously considered the idea, it did not make the proposal to the Soviet Union. NATO also took an increased interest in the specific issue related to West Berlin, and drafted plans to ensure to defend the city against an eventual attack from the East.

While many restrictions remained in place, it also made it easier for West Berliners to travel to East Germany and it simplified the regulations for Germans travelling along the autobahn transit routes.

At the Brandenburg Gate in , U. President Ronald Reagan provided a challenge to the then Soviet leader:. General Secretary Gorbachev , if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization: Come here to this gate!

Gorbachev, open this gate! Gorbachev, tear down this wall! On 9 November , the Wall was opened, and the two parts of the city were once again physically—though at this point not legally—united.

The Two Plus Four Treaty , signed by the two German states and the four wartime allies, paved the way for German reunification and an end to the Western Allies' occupation of West Berlin.

On 3 October —the day Germany was officially reunified—East and West Berlin formally reunited as the city of Berlin, which then joined the enlarged Federal Republic as a city-state along the lines of the existing West German city-states of Bremen and Hamburg.

Walter Momper , the mayor of West Berlin, became the first mayor of the reunified city. West Berlin comprised the following boroughs:.

West Berlin's border was identical to the municipal boundary of Berlin as defined in the Greater Berlin Act of and amended in , and the border between the Soviet sector and the French, British, and American sectors respectively, which followed the boundaries of Berlin administrative boroughs as defined in the same years.

Another amendment was added in at the border between the British sector of Berlin ceding West-Staaken and the Soviet zone ceding the Seeburg Salient so that the Wehrmacht airfield at Berlin-Gatow became part of the British sector and the airfield at Berlin-Staaken became part of the Soviet sector.

The resulting borderline was further complicated with a lot of geographical oddities, including a number of exclaves and enclaves that Greater Berlin had inside some neighbouring municipalities since , all of which happened to become part of the British or American sectors after , so that parts of West Berlin came to be surrounded by East Germany.

However, the de facto administration remained with the Borough of Spandau in the British sector. Therefore, all inhabitants of Staaken could vote in West Berlin's city state elections in and On 1 February , East German Volkspolizei surprised the people of western Staaken by occupying the area and ended its administration by the Spandau Borough; instead, western Staaken became an exclave of the Soviet occupied borough Berlin-Mitte in the city centre.

However, on 1 June , western Staaken's de facto administration was placed with neighbouring East German Falkensee in the East German district Nauen.

This situation was undone on 3 October , the day of German unification, when western Staaken was reincorporated into united Berlin.

West Berlin had its own postal administration first called Deutsche Post Berlin — and then Deutsche Bundespost Berlin , separate from West Germany's Deutsche Bundespost , and issuing its own postage stamps until However, the separation was merely symbolic; in reality West Berlin's postal service was completely integrated with West Germany's, using the same postal code system.

In order to reduce eastern tapping of telecommunications between West Berlin and West Germany, microwave radio relay connections were built, which transmitted telephone calls between antenna towers in West Germany and West Berlin by radio.

West Berliners could travel to West Germany and all Western and non-aligned states at all times, except during the Berlin Blockade by the Soviet Union 24 June to 12 May when there were restrictions on passenger flight capacity imposed by the airlift.

Travelling to and from West Berlin by road or train always required passing through East German border checks, since West Berlin was an enclave surrounded by East Germany and East Berlin.

On 2 October , six years after the Wall was constructed, tram tracks in West Berlin were lifted because the authorities wanted to promote car usage, meaning that the tram system remaining today runs almost entirely within the former East Berlin.

For travel from West Berlin through East Germany by car or rail a valid passport was required for citizens of West Germany and other western nationals to be produced at East German border checks; West Berliners could get admission only through their identity cards see above.

Transitstrecke , East German border guards issued a transit visa for a fee of 5 Western Deutsche Mark. For journeys between West Berlin and Poland or Czechoslovakia through East Germany, each traveller was also required to present a valid visa for the destination country.

The transit routes for road travel connecting West Berlin to other destinations usually consisted of autobahns and other highways, marked by Transit signs.

Transitreisende were prohibited to leave the transit routes , and occasional traffic checkpoints would check for violators.

The latter three routes used autobahns built during the Nazi era. The transit routes were also used for East German domestic traffic.

This meant that transit passengers could potentially meet with East Germans and East Berliners at restaurants at motorway rest stops.

Since such meetings were deemed illegal by the East German government, border guards would calculate the travel duration from the time of entry and exit of the transit route.

Excessive time spent for transit travel could arouse their suspicion and prompt questioning or additional checking by the border guards.

Western coaches could stop only at dedicated service areas, since the East German government was concerned that East Germans might potentially use coaches to escape into the West.

On 1 September East Germany, because of a shortage in foreign currencies , started to levy road tolls on cars using the transit routes.

At first the toll amounted to Eastern Deutsche Mark 10 per passenger car and 10 to 50 for trucks, depending on size. On 30 March , East Germany raised the toll for passenger cars to 30 Deutsche Marks, but after West German protests, in June of the same year it changed it back to the previous rate.

Transitpauschale of 50 million Western Deutsche Marks to the Eastern government, so that transit passengers no longer had to pay tolls individually.

Four transit train connections—earlier also called interzonal train German: These transit trains did not service domestic passengers of East Germany and made stops in East Germany almost exclusively for East German border guards upon entering and leaving the country.

Until the construction of the Berlin Wall, interzonal trains would also stop once on their way within East Germany for travellers having a visa for entering or leaving East Germany.

Train travel from West Berlin to Czechoslovakia, Denmark by ferry , Poland and Sweden by ferry required a visa to enter East Berlin or East Germany to allow transfer to an international train—which also carried domestic passengers—bound for an international destination.

In July and August , the three Western Allies and the Soviet Union decided that the railways, previously serviced by the Deutsche Reichsbahn German Reich Railways , should continue to be operated by one railway administration to service all four sectors.

So West Berlin had — with the exception of a few small private railway lines — no separate railway administration.

Furthermore, the operation of the Reichsbahn's Berlin S-Bahn electric metropolitan transport network, consisting of commuter trains, was also maintained.

After the founding of East Germany on 7 October it gained responsibility for the Reichsbahn in its territory. East Germany continued to run its railways under the official name Deutsche Reichsbahn , which thus maintained responsibility for almost all railway transport in all four sectors of Berlin.

After the Berlin Blockade transit trains German: All transit trains would start or end in East Berlin, passing through West Berlin with only one stop in the Western Berlin Zoologischer Garten railway station , which became West Berlin's main railway station.

Until , the Reichsbahn also permitted stops at other stations on the way through the Western sectors. After easing of tensions between East and West Germany, starting on 30 May transit trains going westwards, southwestwards, or southwards stopped once again at Wannsee.

For transit trains going northwestwards, a shorter line was reopened on 26 September with an additional stop at the then Berlin-Spandau railway station , entering East Germany at Staaken.

Their East German employer, whose proceeds from ticket sales for Western Deutsche Marks contributed to East Germany's foreign revenues, tried to hold down wage social security contributions in Western Deutsche Mark.

They could spend this money in East Germany and take their purchases to West Berlin, which other Westerners could not do to the same extent.

The Reichsbahn ran its own hospital for them in West Berlin, the building of which is now used as the headquarters of Bombardier Transportation.

For certain patients, the Reichsbahn would facilitate treatment in a hospital in East Berlin. In medical emergencies, the employees could use West Berlin doctors and hospitals, which would then be paid for by the Reichsbahn.

Two waterways via the rivers and canals Havel and Mittellandkanal were open for inland navigation , but only freight vessels were allowed to cross from West Berlin into East German waters.

Western freight vessels could stop only at dedicated service areas, because the East German government wanted to prevent any East Germans from boarding them.

Through these waterways, West Berlin was linked to the western European inland navigation network, connecting to seaports like Hamburg and Rotterdam , as well as to industrial areas such as the Ruhr Area , Mannheim , Basel , Belgium, and eastern France.

In July and August , the Western Allies and the Soviet Union decided that the operation and maintenance of the waterways and locks, which were previously run by the national German directorate for inland navigation German: Wasser- und Schifffahrtsamt Berlin , should be continued and reconstructed in all four sectors.

Westhafen Canal and locks, West Berlin had no separate inland navigation authority, but the East Berlin-based authority operated most waterways and locks, their lockmasters were employed by the East.

The western entrance to the Teltowkanal , connecting several industrial areas of West Berlin for heavy freight transport, was blocked by East Germany in Potsdam- Klein Glienicke.

Therefore, vessels going to the Teltowkanal had to take a detour via the river Spree through West and East Berlin's city centre to enter the canal from the East.

On 20 November , East Germany reopened the western entrance, which required two more vessel border checkpoints — Dreilinden and Kleinmachnow — because the waterway crossed the border between East Germany and West Berlin four times.

Air traffic was the only connection between West Berlin and the Western world that was not directly under East German control.

Tickets were originally sold for pounds sterling only. According to permanent agreements, three air corridors to West Germany were provided, which were open only for British, French, or U.

The airspace controlled by the Berlin Air Safety Center comprised a radius of 20 miles The West German airline Lufthansa and most other international airlines were not permitted to fly to West Berlin.

From then on West Berliners required a permit to enter East Germany. East German border checkpoints were established in East German suburbs of West Berlin, and most streets were gradually closed for interzonal travel into East Germany.

The last checkpoint to remain open was located at the Glienicker Brücke near Potsdam, until it was also closed by East Germany on 3 July This caused hardship for many West Berlin residents, especially those who had friends and family in East Germany.

However, East Germans could still enter West Berlin. A number of cemeteries located in East Germany were also affected by the closure. Many church congregations in Berlin owned cemeteries outside the city, so many West Berlin congregations had cemeteries that were located in East Germany.

So many West Berliners wishing to visit the grave of a relative or friend on cemeteries located in East Germany were now unable to do so.

Train routes servicing these suburbs formerly went through West Berlin stations, but ceased to make stops in the western stations or terminated service before entering West Berlin.

Tramways and bus routes that connected West Berlin with its East German suburbs and were operated by West Berlin's public transport operator Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe Gesellschaft BVG West ceased operation on 14 October , after West Berlin tram and bus drivers had been repeatedly stopped and arrested by East German police for having western currency on them, considered a crime in the East.

The Reichsbahn shut down all of its West Berlin terminal stations and redirected its trains to stations in East Berlin, starting with Berlin Görlitzer Bahnhof — closed on 29 April — before serving rail traffic with Görlitz and the southeast of East Germany.

Travellers from East Germany were checked before entering any part of Berlin, to identify individuals intending to escape into West Berlin or smuggling rationed or rare goods into West Berlin.

On 4 June , the Bahnhof Hennigsdorf Süd station located next to West Berlin was opened solely for border controls, also to monitor West Berliners entering or leaving East Berlin, which they could still do freely, while they were not allowed to cross into East Germany proper without a special permit.

In , the Reichsbahn began construction work on the Berlin outer-circle railway line. This circular line connected all train routes heading for West Berlin and accommodated all domestic GDR traffic, thus directing railway traffic into East Berlin while by-passing West Berlin.

Commuters in the East German suburbs around West Berlin now boarded Sputnik express trains, which took them into East Berlin without crossing any western sectors.

With the completion of the outer-circle railway, there was no further need for express S-Bahn trains crossing the West Berlin border and thus their service ended on 4 May , while stopping S-Bahn trains continued service.

With the construction of the Berlin Wall on 13 August , any remaining railway traffic between West Berlin and its East German suburbs ended.

Rail traffic between East and West Berlin was sharply reduced and restricted to a small number of checkpoints under GDR control. However, international visitors could obtain visas for East Berlin upon crossing one of the checkpoints at the Wall.

This route was open only to persons bearing all the necessary East German permits and visas. While East and West Berlin became formally separate jurisdictions in September , and while there were travel restrictions in all other directions for more than a decade, freedom of movement existed between the western sectors and the eastern sector of the city.

However, time and again Soviet and later East German authorities imposed temporary restrictions for certain persons, certain routes, and certain means of transport.

Gradually the eastern authorities disconnected and separated the two parts of the city. While the Soviets blocked all transport to West Berlin Berlin Blockade between 24 June to 12 May , they increased food supplies in East Berlin in order to gain the compliance of West Berliners who at that time still had free access to East Berlin.

This was seen as support by the communists and as treason by most Westerners. Until that time all over Germany food and other necessary supplies had been available only with ration stamps issued by one's municipality.

By July a mere 19, West Berliners out of a total of almost 2 million covered their food requirements in East Berlin.

The new currency was also introduced in West Berlin on 24 June and this, at least officially, was the justification for the Soviet Blockade due to which rationing in West Berlin had to continue.

However, in the course of the Berlin Air Lift some supplies were increased beyond the pre-Blockade level and therefore rationing of certain goods in West Berlin was stopped.

While West Berliners were officially welcome to buy food in East Berlin, the Soviets tried to prevent them from buying other essential supplies, particularly coal and other fuel.

For this reason, on 9 November , they opened checkpoints on 70 streets entering West Berlin and closed the others for horse carriages, lorries and cars, later 16 March the Soviets erected roadblocks on the closed streets.

They also opened so-called "Free Shops" in the Eastern Sector, offering supplies without ration stamps, but denominated at extremely high prices in Eastern Deutsche Marks.

Ordinary East and West Berliners could only afford to buy there if they had income in Western Deutsche Mark and bartered the needed Eastern Deutsche Mark on the spontaneous currency markets, which developed in the British sector at the Zoo station.

After the Blockade, when holders of Western Deutsche Marks could buy as much they could afford, up to five and six east marks were offered for one west mark.

In the East, however, the Soviets had arbitrarily decreed a rate of 1 for 1 and exchanging at other rates was criminalised.

On 12 May the Blockade ended and all roadblocks and checkpoints between East and West Berlin were removed. The Berlin Airlift, however, continued until 30 September in order to build up supplies in West Berlin the so-called Senate Reserve , in readiness for another possible blockade, thus ensuring that an airlift could then be restarted with ease.

On 2 May power stations in East Berlin started again to supply West Berlin with sufficient electricity. Before then, electricity supplies had to be reduced to just a few hours a day after the normal supplies had been interrupted at the start of the Blockade.

However, the Western Allies and the West Berlin City Council decided to be self-sufficient in terms of electricity generation capacity, to be independent of Eastern supplies and not to be held to ransom by the eastern authorities.

On 1 December the new powerhouse West German: However, for a time Eastern electricity continued to be supplied albeit intermittently.

Supply was interrupted from 1 July until the end of and then started again until 4 March , when the East finally switched it off.

At the Brandenburg Gate in , U. President Ronald Reagan provided a challenge to the then Soviet leader:. General Secretary Gorbachev , if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization: Come here to this gate!

Gorbachev, open this gate! Gorbachev, tear down this wall! On 9 November , the Wall was opened, and the two parts of the city were once again physically—though at this point not legally—united.

The Two Plus Four Treaty , signed by the two German states and the four wartime allies, paved the way for German reunification and an end to the Western Allies' occupation of West Berlin.

On 3 October —the day Germany was officially reunified—East and West Berlin formally reunited as the city of Berlin, which then joined the enlarged Federal Republic as a city-state along the lines of the existing West German city-states of Bremen and Hamburg.

Walter Momper , the mayor of West Berlin, became the first mayor of the reunified city. West Berlin comprised the following boroughs:. West Berlin's border was identical to the municipal boundary of Berlin as defined in the Greater Berlin Act of and amended in , and the border between the Soviet sector and the French, British, and American sectors respectively, which followed the boundaries of Berlin administrative boroughs as defined in the same years.

Another amendment was added in at the border between the British sector of Berlin ceding West-Staaken and the Soviet zone ceding the Seeburg Salient so that the Wehrmacht airfield at Berlin-Gatow became part of the British sector and the airfield at Berlin-Staaken became part of the Soviet sector.

The resulting borderline was further complicated with a lot of geographical oddities, including a number of exclaves and enclaves that Greater Berlin had inside some neighbouring municipalities since , all of which happened to become part of the British or American sectors after , so that parts of West Berlin came to be surrounded by East Germany.

However, the de facto administration remained with the Borough of Spandau in the British sector. Therefore, all inhabitants of Staaken could vote in West Berlin's city state elections in and On 1 February , East German Volkspolizei surprised the people of western Staaken by occupying the area and ended its administration by the Spandau Borough; instead, western Staaken became an exclave of the Soviet occupied borough Berlin-Mitte in the city centre.

However, on 1 June , western Staaken's de facto administration was placed with neighbouring East German Falkensee in the East German district Nauen.

This situation was undone on 3 October , the day of German unification, when western Staaken was reincorporated into united Berlin. West Berlin had its own postal administration first called Deutsche Post Berlin — and then Deutsche Bundespost Berlin , separate from West Germany's Deutsche Bundespost , and issuing its own postage stamps until However, the separation was merely symbolic; in reality West Berlin's postal service was completely integrated with West Germany's, using the same postal code system.

In order to reduce eastern tapping of telecommunications between West Berlin and West Germany, microwave radio relay connections were built, which transmitted telephone calls between antenna towers in West Germany and West Berlin by radio.

West Berliners could travel to West Germany and all Western and non-aligned states at all times, except during the Berlin Blockade by the Soviet Union 24 June to 12 May when there were restrictions on passenger flight capacity imposed by the airlift.

Travelling to and from West Berlin by road or train always required passing through East German border checks, since West Berlin was an enclave surrounded by East Germany and East Berlin.

On 2 October , six years after the Wall was constructed, tram tracks in West Berlin were lifted because the authorities wanted to promote car usage, meaning that the tram system remaining today runs almost entirely within the former East Berlin.

For travel from West Berlin through East Germany by car or rail a valid passport was required for citizens of West Germany and other western nationals to be produced at East German border checks; West Berliners could get admission only through their identity cards see above.

Transitstrecke , East German border guards issued a transit visa for a fee of 5 Western Deutsche Mark. For journeys between West Berlin and Poland or Czechoslovakia through East Germany, each traveller was also required to present a valid visa for the destination country.

The transit routes for road travel connecting West Berlin to other destinations usually consisted of autobahns and other highways, marked by Transit signs.

Transitreisende were prohibited to leave the transit routes , and occasional traffic checkpoints would check for violators.

The latter three routes used autobahns built during the Nazi era. The transit routes were also used for East German domestic traffic.

This meant that transit passengers could potentially meet with East Germans and East Berliners at restaurants at motorway rest stops.

Since such meetings were deemed illegal by the East German government, border guards would calculate the travel duration from the time of entry and exit of the transit route.

Excessive time spent for transit travel could arouse their suspicion and prompt questioning or additional checking by the border guards.

Western coaches could stop only at dedicated service areas, since the East German government was concerned that East Germans might potentially use coaches to escape into the West.

On 1 September East Germany, because of a shortage in foreign currencies , started to levy road tolls on cars using the transit routes.

At first the toll amounted to Eastern Deutsche Mark 10 per passenger car and 10 to 50 for trucks, depending on size. On 30 March , East Germany raised the toll for passenger cars to 30 Deutsche Marks, but after West German protests, in June of the same year it changed it back to the previous rate.

Transitpauschale of 50 million Western Deutsche Marks to the Eastern government, so that transit passengers no longer had to pay tolls individually.

Four transit train connections—earlier also called interzonal train German: These transit trains did not service domestic passengers of East Germany and made stops in East Germany almost exclusively for East German border guards upon entering and leaving the country.

Until the construction of the Berlin Wall, interzonal trains would also stop once on their way within East Germany for travellers having a visa for entering or leaving East Germany.

Train travel from West Berlin to Czechoslovakia, Denmark by ferry , Poland and Sweden by ferry required a visa to enter East Berlin or East Germany to allow transfer to an international train—which also carried domestic passengers—bound for an international destination.

In July and August , the three Western Allies and the Soviet Union decided that the railways, previously serviced by the Deutsche Reichsbahn German Reich Railways , should continue to be operated by one railway administration to service all four sectors.

So West Berlin had — with the exception of a few small private railway lines — no separate railway administration. Furthermore, the operation of the Reichsbahn's Berlin S-Bahn electric metropolitan transport network, consisting of commuter trains, was also maintained.

After the founding of East Germany on 7 October it gained responsibility for the Reichsbahn in its territory.

East Germany continued to run its railways under the official name Deutsche Reichsbahn , which thus maintained responsibility for almost all railway transport in all four sectors of Berlin.

After the Berlin Blockade transit trains German: All transit trains would start or end in East Berlin, passing through West Berlin with only one stop in the Western Berlin Zoologischer Garten railway station , which became West Berlin's main railway station.

Until , the Reichsbahn also permitted stops at other stations on the way through the Western sectors. After easing of tensions between East and West Germany, starting on 30 May transit trains going westwards, southwestwards, or southwards stopped once again at Wannsee.

For transit trains going northwestwards, a shorter line was reopened on 26 September with an additional stop at the then Berlin-Spandau railway station , entering East Germany at Staaken.

Their East German employer, whose proceeds from ticket sales for Western Deutsche Marks contributed to East Germany's foreign revenues, tried to hold down wage social security contributions in Western Deutsche Mark.

They could spend this money in East Germany and take their purchases to West Berlin, which other Westerners could not do to the same extent.

The Reichsbahn ran its own hospital for them in West Berlin, the building of which is now used as the headquarters of Bombardier Transportation.

For certain patients, the Reichsbahn would facilitate treatment in a hospital in East Berlin. In medical emergencies, the employees could use West Berlin doctors and hospitals, which would then be paid for by the Reichsbahn.

Two waterways via the rivers and canals Havel and Mittellandkanal were open for inland navigation , but only freight vessels were allowed to cross from West Berlin into East German waters.

Western freight vessels could stop only at dedicated service areas, because the East German government wanted to prevent any East Germans from boarding them.

Through these waterways, West Berlin was linked to the western European inland navigation network, connecting to seaports like Hamburg and Rotterdam , as well as to industrial areas such as the Ruhr Area , Mannheim , Basel , Belgium, and eastern France.

In July and August , the Western Allies and the Soviet Union decided that the operation and maintenance of the waterways and locks, which were previously run by the national German directorate for inland navigation German: Wasser- und Schifffahrtsamt Berlin , should be continued and reconstructed in all four sectors.

Westhafen Canal and locks, West Berlin had no separate inland navigation authority, but the East Berlin-based authority operated most waterways and locks, their lockmasters were employed by the East.

The western entrance to the Teltowkanal , connecting several industrial areas of West Berlin for heavy freight transport, was blocked by East Germany in Potsdam- Klein Glienicke.

Therefore, vessels going to the Teltowkanal had to take a detour via the river Spree through West and East Berlin's city centre to enter the canal from the East.

On 20 November , East Germany reopened the western entrance, which required two more vessel border checkpoints — Dreilinden and Kleinmachnow — because the waterway crossed the border between East Germany and West Berlin four times.

Air traffic was the only connection between West Berlin and the Western world that was not directly under East German control.

Tickets were originally sold for pounds sterling only. According to permanent agreements, three air corridors to West Germany were provided, which were open only for British, French, or U.

The airspace controlled by the Berlin Air Safety Center comprised a radius of 20 miles The West German airline Lufthansa and most other international airlines were not permitted to fly to West Berlin.

From then on West Berliners required a permit to enter East Germany. East German border checkpoints were established in East German suburbs of West Berlin, and most streets were gradually closed for interzonal travel into East Germany.

The last checkpoint to remain open was located at the Glienicker Brücke near Potsdam, until it was also closed by East Germany on 3 July This caused hardship for many West Berlin residents, especially those who had friends and family in East Germany.

However, East Germans could still enter West Berlin. A number of cemeteries located in East Germany were also affected by the closure.

Many church congregations in Berlin owned cemeteries outside the city, so many West Berlin congregations had cemeteries that were located in East Germany.

So many West Berliners wishing to visit the grave of a relative or friend on cemeteries located in East Germany were now unable to do so.

Train routes servicing these suburbs formerly went through West Berlin stations, but ceased to make stops in the western stations or terminated service before entering West Berlin.

Tramways and bus routes that connected West Berlin with its East German suburbs and were operated by West Berlin's public transport operator Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe Gesellschaft BVG West ceased operation on 14 October , after West Berlin tram and bus drivers had been repeatedly stopped and arrested by East German police for having western currency on them, considered a crime in the East.

The Reichsbahn shut down all of its West Berlin terminal stations and redirected its trains to stations in East Berlin, starting with Berlin Görlitzer Bahnhof — closed on 29 April — before serving rail traffic with Görlitz and the southeast of East Germany.

Travellers from East Germany were checked before entering any part of Berlin, to identify individuals intending to escape into West Berlin or smuggling rationed or rare goods into West Berlin.

On 4 June , the Bahnhof Hennigsdorf Süd station located next to West Berlin was opened solely for border controls, also to monitor West Berliners entering or leaving East Berlin, which they could still do freely, while they were not allowed to cross into East Germany proper without a special permit.

In , the Reichsbahn began construction work on the Berlin outer-circle railway line. This circular line connected all train routes heading for West Berlin and accommodated all domestic GDR traffic, thus directing railway traffic into East Berlin while by-passing West Berlin.

Commuters in the East German suburbs around West Berlin now boarded Sputnik express trains, which took them into East Berlin without crossing any western sectors.

With the completion of the outer-circle railway, there was no further need for express S-Bahn trains crossing the West Berlin border and thus their service ended on 4 May , while stopping S-Bahn trains continued service.

With the construction of the Berlin Wall on 13 August , any remaining railway traffic between West Berlin and its East German suburbs ended. Rail traffic between East and West Berlin was sharply reduced and restricted to a small number of checkpoints under GDR control.

However, international visitors could obtain visas for East Berlin upon crossing one of the checkpoints at the Wall. This route was open only to persons bearing all the necessary East German permits and visas.

While East and West Berlin became formally separate jurisdictions in September , and while there were travel restrictions in all other directions for more than a decade, freedom of movement existed between the western sectors and the eastern sector of the city.

However, time and again Soviet and later East German authorities imposed temporary restrictions for certain persons, certain routes, and certain means of transport.

Gradually the eastern authorities disconnected and separated the two parts of the city. While the Soviets blocked all transport to West Berlin Berlin Blockade between 24 June to 12 May , they increased food supplies in East Berlin in order to gain the compliance of West Berliners who at that time still had free access to East Berlin.

This was seen as support by the communists and as treason by most Westerners. Until that time all over Germany food and other necessary supplies had been available only with ration stamps issued by one's municipality.

By July a mere 19, West Berliners out of a total of almost 2 million covered their food requirements in East Berlin.

The new currency was also introduced in West Berlin on 24 June and this, at least officially, was the justification for the Soviet Blockade due to which rationing in West Berlin had to continue.

However, in the course of the Berlin Air Lift some supplies were increased beyond the pre-Blockade level and therefore rationing of certain goods in West Berlin was stopped.

While West Berliners were officially welcome to buy food in East Berlin, the Soviets tried to prevent them from buying other essential supplies, particularly coal and other fuel.

For this reason, on 9 November , they opened checkpoints on 70 streets entering West Berlin and closed the others for horse carriages, lorries and cars, later 16 March the Soviets erected roadblocks on the closed streets.

They also opened so-called "Free Shops" in the Eastern Sector, offering supplies without ration stamps, but denominated at extremely high prices in Eastern Deutsche Marks.

Ordinary East and West Berliners could only afford to buy there if they had income in Western Deutsche Mark and bartered the needed Eastern Deutsche Mark on the spontaneous currency markets, which developed in the British sector at the Zoo station.

After the Blockade, when holders of Western Deutsche Marks could buy as much they could afford, up to five and six east marks were offered for one west mark.

In the East, however, the Soviets had arbitrarily decreed a rate of 1 for 1 and exchanging at other rates was criminalised.

On 12 May the Blockade ended and all roadblocks and checkpoints between East and West Berlin were removed. The Berlin Airlift, however, continued until 30 September in order to build up supplies in West Berlin the so-called Senate Reserve , in readiness for another possible blockade, thus ensuring that an airlift could then be restarted with ease.

On 2 May power stations in East Berlin started again to supply West Berlin with sufficient electricity. Before then, electricity supplies had to be reduced to just a few hours a day after the normal supplies had been interrupted at the start of the Blockade.

However, the Western Allies and the West Berlin City Council decided to be self-sufficient in terms of electricity generation capacity, to be independent of Eastern supplies and not to be held to ransom by the eastern authorities.

On 1 December the new powerhouse West German: However, for a time Eastern electricity continued to be supplied albeit intermittently.

Supply was interrupted from 1 July until the end of and then started again until 4 March , when the East finally switched it off. From then on West Berlin turned into an 'electricity island' within a pan-European electricity grid that had developed from the s, because electricity transfers between East and West Germany never fully ceased.

The 'electricity island' situation was noticed most in situations of particularly high demand; in other areas of Europe peaks in demand could be met by tapping into electricity supplies from neighbouring areas, but in West Berlin this was not an option and for certain users the lights would go out.

Free entry to East Berlin remained possible until and the building of the Wall. Berlin's underground Untergrundbahn, U-Bahn and Berlin's S-Bahn a metropolitan public transit network , rebuilt after the war, continued to span all occupation sectors.

Many people lived in one half of the city and had family, friends, and jobs in the other. However, the East continuously reduced the means of public transport between East and West, with private cars being a very rare privilege in the East and still a luxury in the West.

Starting on 15 January the tram network was interrupted. Instead of changing the Western rules, so that the Easterly intended interruption of the cross-border tram traffic would not happen, the BVG West insisted on male drivers.

So cross-border tram traffic ended on 16 January. The underground and the S-Bahn networks, except the above-mentioned traverse S-Bahn trains , continued to provide services between East and West Berlin.

However, occasionally the East Berlin police — in the streets and on cross-border trains in East Berlin — identified suspicious behaviour such as carrying heavy loads westwards and watched out for unwelcome Westerners.

Occasionally, West Germans were banned from entering East Berlin. This was the case between 29 August and 1 September , when ex prisoners of war and deportees, homecomers German: Heimkehrer , from all around West Germany and West Berlin met for a convention in that city.

The homecomers released mostly from a long detention in the Soviet Union were unwelcome in East Berlin. West Berliners were allowed, since the quadripartite Allied status quo provided for their free movement around all four sectors.

As the communist government in the East gained tighter control, and the economic recovery in the West significantly outperformed the East, more than a hundred thousand East Germans and East Berliners left East Germany and East Berlin for the West every year.

As there was freedom of movement between West Berlin and West Germany, Easterners could use the city as a transit point to West Germany, usually travelling there by air.

The Wall was directed against the Easterners, who by its construction were no longer allowed to leave the East, except with an Eastern permit, not usually granted.

Westerners were still granted visas on entering East Berlin. In the course of the day he protested along with many other West Berliners on Potsdamer Platz and at the Brandenburg Gate.

On 14 August, under the pretext that Western demonstrations required it, the East closed the checkpoint at the Brandenburg Gate 'until further notice', a situation that was to last until 22 December , when it was finally reopened.

West Germans and other nationals, however, could still get visas on entering East Berlin. Since intra-city phone lines had been cut by the East already in May see below the only remaining way of communication with family or friends on the other side was by mail or at meeting in a motorway restaurant on a transit route , because the transit traffic remained unaffected throughout.

Until June the East deepened its border zone around West Berlin in East Germany and East Berlin by clearing existing buildings and vegetation to create an open field of view, sealed off by the Berlin Wall towards the West and a second wall or fence of similar characteristics to the East, observed by armed men in towers, with orders to shoot at escapees.

Finally, in , West Berliners were again allowed to visit East Berlin. On this occasion a further checkpoint for pedestrians only was opened on the Oberbaumbrücke.

West Berliners were granted visas for a one-day visit between 17 December and 5 January the following year. In , , and East Berlin was opened again to West Berliners, but each time only for a limited period.

East Germany assigned different legal statuses to East Germans, East Berliners, West Germans, and West Berliners, as well as citizens from other countries in the world.

According to the specified regulations valid from 2 November on Eastern pensioners could apply, and were usually allowed, to travel into the West to visit relatives once a year for a maximum of four weeks.

If pensioners decided not to return, the government did not miss them as manpower, unlike younger Easterners, who were subject to a system of labour and employment, which demanded that almost everybody work in the Eastern command production system.

On 2 December East Germany, always short of hard currency, decreed that every Western visitor had to buy a minimum of 5 Eastern Mark der Deutschen Notenbank per day MDN, [54] — the official name of the East German mark, to distinguish it from the West Deutsche Mark at the still held arbitrary compulsory rate of 1: The 5 marks had to be spent, as exporting Eastern currency was illegal, which is why importing it after having bargained for it at the currency market at Zoo station was also illegal.

Western pensioners and children were spared from the compulsory exchange officially in German: Not long after East Germany held the first cash harvest from the new compulsory exchange rules by allowing West Berliners to visit East Berlin once more for a day during the Christmas season.

The following year, , East Germany opened the travelling season for West Berliners on 18 December. In it opened for a second harvest of Western money between the Easter 10 April and Pentecost 29 May holidays and later again at Christmas.

The situation only changed fundamentally after 11 December when, representing the two German states, Egon Bahr from the West and Michael Kohl from the East signed the Transit Agreement.

This was followed by a similar agreement for West Berliners, once more allowing regular visits to East Germany and East Berlin.

After ratification of the Agreement and specifying the relevant regulations, West Berliners could apply for the first time again for visas for any chosen date to East Berlin or East Germany from 3 October onwards.

West Berliners were now spared the visa fee of 5 Western Deutsche Marks, not to be confused with the compulsory exchange amounting to the same sum, but yielding in return 5 Eastern marks.

This financial relief did not last long, because on 15 November East Germany doubled the compulsory exchange to 10 Eastern marks, payable in West German Deutsche Marks at par.

One-day-visas for East Berlin were now issued in a quickened procedure; visas for longer stays and visas for East Germany proper needed a prior application, which could be a lengthy procedure.

Büros für Besuchs- und Reiseangelegenheiten in West Berlin, but were not allowed to show any official symbols of East Germany. The Eastern officials working commuted every morning and evening between East and West Berlin.

Their uniforms showed no official symbols except the name Büro für Besuchs- und Reiseangelegenheiten. They accepted visa applications and handed out confirmed visas issued in the East to the West Berlin applicants.

A shed formerly housing one such Büro für Besuchs- und Reiseangelegenheiten can be found on Waterlooufer 5—7 in Berlin- Kreuzberg , close to Hallesches Tor underground station.

Another form of traffic between East and West Berlin was the transfer of West Berlin's sewage into East Berlin and East Germany through the sewer pipes built in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Her Tits are Beautiful, i like her shyness. Renee Ross is the perfect babe to get wet and wild with. Ain't that the truth! That usually means that they stare, but they never come up and say something to me.

They're just thunderstruck and in awe. I prefer positive attention based on my skills, character and personality. Helen Star was drawn to the bedroom's mirrored closet door.

The builder that placed it there opposite the bed thinks like we do. Some of the awesome breast bouncing action was shot in slow motion.

We can't go anywhere without getting attention, even when we wear loose clothes. Some of them have looks on their faces like, 'I can't believe what I am seeing!

You can tell by the looks on their faces. Now and then, an email or a letter arrives, the writer shocked that there are two girls built like this in the same family, but it's all in the genes so the writer shouldn't be surprised.

The Star sisters have another sister with big boobs but no modeling aspirations at this time. She is a reason to run home every night instead of stopping off at the local pub for a few beers.

Good German beer, of course. Why do that when you could go home, pull up a kitchen chair and watch Emilia spruce up the place getting her valuable treasure chest and her shaved pussy all sudsy.

Then you and Emilia reconnoiter in the bedroom to wrap the day up by sucking on her magnificent tits, for starters.

In this scene, Natascha Romanova takes advantage of the nice weather. She gets into her swimsuit, a pink bikini that can barely hold the weight of her heavy tits.

This lady is the bikini buster of all bikini busters! Going outside to relax on a recliner so she can get some sunshine, Natascha smears white lotion over her gigantic boobs.

But she's too restless to mellow out. Rubbing her massive breasts gets her tingling. She pours oil on her tits and rubs it in.

They shine in the sun. Natascha has total privacy. She can rub and finger her pussy and no one will catch her. The bathroom is tiny.

There's hardly enough room for Erin Star's big tits, but if you squeeze in, the two of you should be a perfect fit. When you talk to Erin, you are also talking to her sister Helen, whether Helen is actually with Erin or not.

They have sibling telepathy. We like loose clothes. Helen tends to complete Erin's sentences and vice versa.

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